Such oath swearing would be understandable mediante view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Therefore, the degree to which the central government and its agents were involved mediante the dissemination of the imperial image con the early Riempire must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined

Verso passage sopra Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [a religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced durante great numbers and quickly distributed preciso the armies throughout the Riempire. This practice may be implied mediante a passage durante Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) con which Augustus’ adopted son and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal preciso that of Augustus, was shown (i.addirittura., con effigy) onesto all the armies: filius [Tiberius], socio imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes per exercitus ostentatur. Needless to say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around esatto all the armies throughout the Empire after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer onesto his image con one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed to them.

Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares esatto all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Moltissimi lares geniumque ducis, ora tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina pizzo colunt (“The city has a thousand Lares and the Genius of the pubblico [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.ancora., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need preciso distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult per Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced in bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images durante verso relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as sopra the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true per the case of the distribution of life-size models mediante plaster or terracotta esatto meet the great demand of cities and municipalities onesto honor verso new Princeps by setting up his image con many different contexts.

Needless onesto say, such per taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective

The portraits of Caligula that have quale down puro us — regardless of the medium of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, sicuro varying degrees, a given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula in all mezzi di comunicazione that must have once existed during his principate, only per small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are per few small bronze busts, several cameos, and verso couple of glass-paste medallions. A good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes sopra a more obvious fashion than others. The sovrano-cutting of a portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as per result of some sort of ingegno damnata, is verso well-known phenomenon sopra Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner per this collection of essays.

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